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The Molecular Biology Of Cellular Senescence

1. Free radical levels in our body has to be controlled in a small quantity to make them helpful to our body. However, excess free radicals created by the chemical process– oxidation, are found to accelerate your aging. Because free radicals can acquire electron from other molecules in our body thereby left that molecule and/or cell damaged. Excess free radicals are more easily created through oxidation by environmental pollutions and radiations. Antioxidant is a group of molecules that can neutralize free radicals thereby is a common component in anti-aging skin care creams and anti-aging super foods/supplements.

2. Glycation here is a term referring to a type of chemical reaction between amino acids of the protein and aldehydes (such as glucose, sugar, called glycating agents). By forming covalent bond between amino acid in a protein and the glycating agents (aldehydes), the combined molecule can then cross link to other functional protein molecule to form a molecule called AGE (advanced glycation end products). AGE is very detrimental to our body in that they can attach to cells causing cells to produce toxic chemical by-products. Moreover, AGE stimulate the production of free radicals which in turn produce more aldehydes glycating agent thereby forming a vicious cycle that will accelerate your aging. The only natural substance discovered so far that is able to neutralize glycating agents is carnosine (a dipeptide) which is an expensive nutrient. The effect of glycation is reflected as unsightly wrinkled skin. Glycation is also an underlying cause of age-related catastrophes including the neurologic, vascular, and eye disorders. Glycation is commonly measured in the body by estimating or monitoring the blood levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (Hba1c).

3. Methylation refers to the chemical reaction whereby molecules containing methyl group can be linked to various constituents of protein, DNA and other molecules. Methylation in our body must be balanced in order to keep proteins, DNA and other molecules working well. Homocysteine is a byproduct of methionion-protein complex whereby Methionion (an amino acid methylating agent) regulates an important methylation reaction in our body by methylating protein or DNA. When homocysteine is in excess in our body, it is found to accelerate telemore (a structure involved in cell division) destruction and thereby causing or accelerating the aging process. However, methylation of certain part of DNA can in fact turn off unnecessary or harmful genes and can block division of abnormal cells thereby prevent aging caused by these abnormal cells. How does our body balance methylation? There are three groups of molecules in our body regulate to balance methylation. They are vitamin B6, B12, Tri-Methyl-Glycine (TMG), and S-Adenosyl-Methionine (SAMe). As aging progresses, Vitamin B functioning as a cofactor in methylation reaction tend to become less efficient. SAMe is one of the most effective methylating agent in the body formed by binding methionion to ATP (adenosine triphosphate–the well known cellular energy molecule).

4. It is believed that Chronic Inflammation is the cause of many age related damage, because excessive inflammation also produces excessive toxic chemicals which not only fight bacteria, but also damage normal body tissues. One example phenomenon of excessive inflammation is excitotoxicity where brain cells get over-excited. Another component in inflammation is TNF (tumor necrosis factor), excess TNF promotes the degeneration of brain and nerves. Omega-s fish oil has been used for anti-inflammatory purposes, however it only handle one of the many inflammation components. The best known natural calorie restriction mimics resveratrol (an anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant) has been used to keep TNF as low as possible.

5. DNA degeneration is an aging process in which DNA lose its ability to interact with RNA, the molecule directs the translation and synthesis of protein. The degeneration is then passed on to the new cells after DNA replication and cell division and therefore accelerate aging. Because of this, bio-active DNA repair molecules are an integral part of anti-aging super food supplement products.

6. It has been proposed that aging was partially a result of decreased energy production in the cell’s mitochondria. Reduced mitochondrial function causes cells to become defective and lack the energy needed to effectively repair mutated or damaged DNA. This theory about the correlation of cell energy depletion and aging have been validated by published scientific studies since its proposal.

In conclusion, the six causes of aging are not isolated. Rather the 6 causes of aging are interrelated. A lot of free radicals can also increase glycation (AGE). To see more detailed picture of Aging Process, visit our anti-aging web site knowledge base section

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